A short bibliography of Medieval/Renaissance Brewing

This is a short annotated bibliography of books and other materials useful for historical brewing. Some of these materials range up into the 1800s. If you have any additional sources or comments, please mail them to me at lindahl@pbm.com.

Many thanks to Crystal Isaac and Cindy Renfrow for providing almost all these entries!

See also the Bibliography on the History of Brewing.



Acton, B. and Duncan, P. Making Mead - a complete guide to the making of sweet and dry Mead, Melomel. Metheglin, Hippicras, Pyment and Cyser. Published by G.W. Kent Inc., Ann Arbor, MI. (c)1984 by Argus Books Ltd. 1984. ISBN 0-900841-07-9 (CI: Modern. Includes some photographs, index and listing of related titles. Many good recipes but little historical documentation.)

Al-Kindi, Abu Yusuf Ya'qub ibn Isaq (c. 800-870 CE) The Medical Formulary or Aqrabadhin of Al-Kindi: Translated with a Study of its Materia Medica. Translated by Levey, Martin. Published by The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI. 1966. LCCCN 65-12105 (CI: copy, facsimile of original on opposite pages of translation, no pictures)

Al-Samarqandt, Abu Hamanid M.b.A.O. Najib al-Din (d. 1222 CE) The Medical Formulary of Al-Samarqandt and the Relation of Early Arabic Simples to Those Found in Indigenous Medicine of the Near East and India. By Levey, Martin., and Al-Khaledy, Noury. Published by The University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. 1967. LCCCN 66-14525 (CI: facsimile of original at end, no pictures)

The Ale Trail. Eric Dobby Publishing (Kent), 1995. ISBN: 1858820413

Andrews, S. W. 1971, All about Mead. 96 pp. Mills & Boon, London

Anonymous. Ancient Cookery. Reprinted in A Collection of Medieval and Renaissance Cookbooks: First Compiled by Duke Cariadoc of the Bow and The Duchess Diana Alena. Sixth Edition (1991) Volume One, published privately. (CI: a few caudle recipes)

Anonymous. A Noble Boke Off Cookry Ffor a Prynce Houssolde. (circa 1470). Reprinted in A Collection of Medieval and Renaissance Cookbooks: First Compiled by Duke Cariadoc of the Bow and The Duchess Diana Alena. Sixth Edition (1991) Volume One, published privately. (CI: a few caudle recipes)

Anonymous. A Proper Newe Booke of Cokerye. (circa 16th cent.) Reprinted in A Collection of Medieval and Renaissance Cookbooks: First Compiled by Duke Cariadoc of the Bow and The Duchess Diana Alena. Sixth Edition (1991) Volume One, published privately. (CI: a few caudle recipes)

Athenaeus. The Deipnosophists, or The Sophists at Dinner. Tr. by Charles Burton Gulick. Wm. Heinemann, Ltd. London. G.P. Putnam's Sons. New York, 1927. Ed. by E. Capps, T.E. Page, W.H.D. Rouse. The Loeb Classical Library. (CR: 7 volumes dating from circa 228 A.D., containing a great deal of information on the wines and foods of ancient Greece, Rome, and Egypt.)

*Anthimus. De Observatio Ciborum. circa 526. Translated by Weber, Shirley Howard (Anthimus, De Observatio Ciborum: Text, Commentary, and Glossary with a Study of the Latinity. A Dissertation...) published by E. J. Brill Ltd., Leiden 1924. (CI: copy of English translation, glossary and index, 6th century letter from a Byzantine physician to Theoderic, King of the Franks. Mentions milk, tisane, mead and wine)

Apicius. Apicius de re Coquinaria. Translated by Flower, Barbara and Rosenbaum, Elisabeth. The Roman Cookery Book: A critical translation of the Art of Cooking by Apicius for use in the study and the kitchen. Published by the British Book Center, New York 1958. (CI: Several recipes for spiced wine)

Arnald of Villanova, (1235-1311). The Earliest Printed Book on Wine. translated from the German edition by Sigerist, Henry E. Published by Schuman's New York 1943 (CI: Lots of wine and spiced wine recipes, a brief comment on beer)

Atlas, Alia, translator. *Daz Buoch von Guoter Spise. (circa 1345-1354CE) Reprinted in A Collection of Medieval and Renaissance Cookery Books. Volume II by Friedman, David (Sir Cariadoc of the Bow) Published privately. (CI: one mead recipe) [available on the web]

Austin, Gregory A. Alcohol in Western Society from Antiquity to 1800: A Chronological History. Published by ABC-CLIO Santa Barbara, CA. (c)1985 Gregory Austin. ISBN 0-87436-418-3 (CI: Modern, mostly legal and church sources. Austin quotes some sources that are not well documented)

Austin, Thomas, editor. *Two Fifteenth-Century Cookery Books Harleian MS 279 (ab. 1430), & Harl. MS. 4016 (ab. 1450), with extracts from Ashmole MS 1429, Laud MS 553, & Douce MS. 55. Published for the Early English Text Society by N. Trübner & Co., London 1888. (CI: untranslated, unadapted, includes excellent glossary. Some caudle and spiced wine recipes)

Benson, Evelyn Abraham, ed. Penn Family Recipes, Cooking Recipes of Wm. Penn's Wife, GULIELMA. George Shumway, Publisher. York, Pennsylvania, 1966. Contains the MS. cookbook: "My Mother's Recaipts for Cookerys Presarving and Chyrurgery - William Penn" signed "Here ends the book of Coockary in great hast transcrided by Edward Blackfan the 25th of October 1702." (CR: Gulielma Penn died in 1694 at the age of 50, so this collection of recipes should rightly be dated circa 1664-94.)

Bevan, Edward 1838, The Honey Bee. [2nd edition]: 447 pp. Chapter XXVIII: pp. 278-290: "Mead] Van Voorst paternoster, London

Beck, Bodog F. 1938, Honey and Health. 272 pp. Chap. IX: pp. 122-133: Mead; Robert M. McBride and Co., New York

Beck, Bodog F. & Smedley, Dorée 1946, Honey and your Health. 246 pp. pages 91-101: `The Mead of the Ancients' [+ other pp.] McBride & Co., N.Y.

Bickerdyke's "The Curiosities of Ale and Beer" 1965

Bennett, Judith M. Ale, Beer and Brewsters in England : Women's Work in a Changing World, 1300-1600. Oxford Univ Press, September 1996, ISBN: 0195073908

Butler, Charles. The Feminine Monarchie or A Treatise Concerning Bees, and the Dve Ordering of Them, etc. Printed by Ioseph Barnes. Oxford, 1609. Rpt. Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Ltd. Amsterdam, 1969.

Castelvetro, Giacomo (1546-1616) Brieve racconto di tutte le radici, di tutte l'herb et di tutti i frutti, che crudi o cotti in Italia si mangiano c. 1614. Translated by Riley, Gillian. The Fruit, Herbs & Vegetables of Italy. Published by Viking Penguin Inc., New York. 1989 (CI: excellent text of Italian foods eaten in late period, mentions wine and pommegrant wine)

The Compleat Anachronist #5. The Compleat Anachroist Handbook of Brewing. Edited by Lady Arwen Evaine fert Rhys ap Gwynedd. Published by The Compleat Anachronist. March 1983

The Compleat Anachronist #60. Alcoholic Drinks of the Middle Ages. By Marc Shapiro. Published by The Compleat Anachronist. 1993 [on web]

Country House Brewing in England 1500-1900. The Hambledon Press 1996 ISBN: 1852851279

Crane, Eva 1980, A Book of Honey, 193 pp. Honey in alcoholic drinks: pp. 88-94. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York

Digbie, Sir Kenelme. The Closet of Sir Kenelme Digbie Opened. Edited by Stevenson, Jane and Davidson, Peter. 1997 Prospect Books. Devon, England. ISBN 0907325-769

Digbie, Sir Kenelme. The Closet of the Eminently Learned Sir Kenelme Digbie Kt. Opened: Whereby is Discovered Several ways for making of Metheglin, Sider, Cherry-Wine, &c. together with Excellent Directions for Cookery: As alfo for Preferving, Canferving, Candying, &c. Published by his Son's Consent. Reprinted in A Collection of Medieval and Renaissance Cookbooks: First Compiled by Duke Cariadoc of the Bow and The Duchess Diana Alena. Sixth Edition (1991) Volume One, published privately.

Digby, Sir Kenelme. The Closet of the Eminently Learned Sir Kenelme Digby Kt. Opened: Whereby is Discovered Several ways for making of Metheglin, Sider, Cherry-Wine, &c. Together with Excellent Directions for Cookery: As also for Preserving, Conserving, Candying, &c. Published by his Son's Consent. Printed by E. C. for H. Brome, at the Star in Little Britain. London, 1669.

Fettiplace, Elanor. Elanor Fettiplaces's Recipt Book: Elizabethian Country House Cooking. edited by Spurling, Hiliary. Published by Elisabeth Sifton Books: Viking, New York, New York. 1986. (CI: must be read carefully, many recipes from 1700's)

Friedman, David (Master Sir Cariadoc of the Bow), and Cook, Elizabeth (Mistress Elizabeth of Dendermonde). Elizabeth and Cariadoc's Miscellany. Published privately. Chicago, IL. 1990 (CI: several non-alcoholic beverages and one spiced wine)

Furnivall, Fredrick J., editor. *Early English Meals and Manners: John Russell's Boke of Nurture, ... William Vaughan's Fifteen Directions to Preserve Health ... The Babees Book...&c. Published for the Early English Text Society by Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., England 1894 (CI: period cartoons!, descriptions of how to prepare spiced wines)

Gayre, G. Robert. Wassail! In Mazers of Mead (c)1986 by G. Robert Gayre, Gayre & Nigg. Papazian, Charlie. Brewing Mead. (c)1986 by Charlie Papazian. Published in one volume by Brewers Publications, P.O. Box 1679 Boulder, CO 80306 USA. Tel. 303-447-0816, Fax. 303-447-2825 ISBN 0-937381-00-4 (CI: Modern, some pictures, no index.)

Giacosa, Ilaria Gozzini. A Taste of Ancient Rome. trenslated by Herklotz, Anna. Published by University of Chicago Press. Chicago (c)1992 University of Chicago. (CI: Chapter XII, Beverages)

Hagen, Ann. A Handbook of Anglo-Saxon Food: Processing and Consumption. Published by Anglos Saxon Books, England. 1993. (c)1992 Ann Hagen

Hagen, Ann. A Second Handbook of Anglo-Saxon Food & Drink: Production & Distribution. Published by Anglos Saxon Books, England. 1995. (c)1995 Ann Hagen

Hartman, George 1696, The Family Physitian. Pages 492-497: Meads, Metheglin & Hydromel, Wellington, London

Hattox, Ralph S. Coffee and Coffeehouses: The Origins of a Social Beverage in the Medieval Near East. University of Washington Press. Seattle. Third Printing 1996. ISBN 0-295-96231-3

Henslow, G. Rev. Professor. editor. Medical Works of the Fourteenth Century Together with a List of Plants Recorded in Contemporary Writing with the Identifications. Published by Burt Franklin, New York, NY, 1972. ISBN 0-8337-1666-2. (CI: not brewing specific, but will give you an idea of what they thought was ok to eat) (IG: it does have an aqua vitae, and a number of medicinal 'cordial' recipes of sorts. Nigel FitzMaurice, our Guild researcher, has been able to use this work as documentation for the 'roots' of cordial development.)

Hess, Karen. Martha Washington's Booke of Cookery and Booke of Sweetmeats. Published by Columbia University Press. NY 1995. ISBN 0-231-04931-5 (CI: some cool syrup recipes)

Hieatt, Constance. editor and translator. An Ordinance Of Pottage: An Edition of the Fifteenth Century Culinary Recipes in Yale University's MS Beinecke 163. Published by Prospect Books, Ltd., London. 1988 ISBN 0-907325-38-6. (CI: excellent book, some adapted caudle recipes and one spiced wine)

Hieatt, Constance and Butler, Sharon. editors and translators. Curye on Inglysch: English Culinary Manuscripts of the Fourteenth Century (Including the Forme of Cury). Published for the Early English Text Society by Oxford University Press. London, England 1985 ISBN 0-19-722409. (CI: section on Good Cookery has information on spiced wines, brakkot and brandy)

Hinson, Janet. translator. Le Ménagier De Paris (circa. 1393) Reprinted in A Collection of Medieval and Renaissance Cookery Books. Volume II by Friedman, David (Sir Cariadoc of the Bow) Published privately. (CI: This is the only translation that includes the beverage section)

Huish, Robert 1817, A Treatise on the nature, Economy, and Practical Management of Bees. 396 pp., Chap. XXXII: pp. 380-386: Mead Baldwin, Cradock and Joy, London

Katz, Solomon H., and Fritz Maytag. "Brewing an Ancient Beer," Archaeology. July/August, 1991, pp. 24-33.

Keys, John 1780, The Practical Bee-Master, 390 pp. Paragraphs 846-851 [pp. 346-349]: To make Mead, Company of Stationers, London.

Keys, John 1796, The Antient Bee-Master's Farewell, 275 pp., Chap. XXVII: pp. 199-203: To Make Mead., G. G. and J. Robinson, London

Lorwin, Madge. Dining with William Shakespeare. Published by Atheneum, New York. 1976. ISBN 0-689-10731-5 (CI: Fully adapted recipes and an excellent essay on wine)

*Maimonides, Moses (1135-1204 CE). Maqalah Fi Bayan Ba'D Al-A'Rad Wa-A;-Jawab 'Anha Ma'Amar Ha-Hakra'Ah. edited and translated by Leibowitz, JO and Marcus, S. Moses Maimonides on the Causes and Symptoms (Maqalah Fi Bayan Ba'D Al-A'Rad Wa-A;-Jawab 'Anha Ma'Amar Ha-Hakra'Ah [and] De Causis Accidentium) Published by University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1974. ISBN 0-520-02224-6 LCCCN 71-187873 (CI: Well indexed. 13th century Hebrew translation of the Arabic Text. English translation pages opposite Hebrew. Arabic and Latin presented without translation. Some dicussion of drinks and advice on wine.)

Markham, Gervase. The English Huf-wife, contayning the inward and outward vertues which ought to be in a compleat woman.... Originally published in 1615. Republished as The English Housewife edited by Best, Michael R., Published by McGill-Queen's University Press 1986. ISBN 0-7735-0582-2. (CI: sections on brewing)

May, Robert. The Accomplisht Cook or The Art and Mystery of Cookery. Fourth edition, 1678. Published by Falconwood Press. (c)1992 Susan J. Evans 193 Colonie Street Albany, New York 12210-2501 (CI: a few mead and spiced wine recipes)

McGee, Harold. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. Published by Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.1984. ISBN 0-684-18132-0. (CI: modern but interesting on the developement of beer and mead)

Miller, Dave. The Complete Handbook of Home Brewing. Published by A Garden Way of Publishing Book (c)1988 by Storey Communications Inc., Pownal, VT 05261. ISBN 0-88266-522-7 (CI: modern, excellent source for brewing information, but this book deals only with the making of beer)

Monckton, H. A. A History of English Ale and Beer. The Bodley Head. London, 1966. He has an undocumented braggot recipe on p. 31.

Morley, Margaret 1899, The Honey-Makers. 424 pp. Chap. XIII: pp. 206-223: Mead., A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago

Morse, Roger A. Making Mead (Honey Wine) History, Recipes, Methods and Equipment. Published by Wicwas Press, Cheshire, CN 1980. (c) Roger A. Morse, 1980. ISBN1-878075-04-7 (CI: modern, sulfiteorama)

Morse, Roger A. & Steinkraus, Keith H. 1976, wines from the fermentation of honey: Chapter 16: pp. 392-407 in: Crane, Eva (Editor): Honey: A Comprehensive Survey, 608 pp. William Heinemann, Ltd., London

Ogden, Margaret Sinclair. editor. The 'Libre de Diversis Medicinis' in the Thornton Manuscript (MS. Lincoln Cathedral, A.5.2). Published for the Early English Text Society by Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press. Amen House, E.C. 4. England. 1938. (CI: not brewing specific, but will give you an idea of what medieval peoples thought was ok to eat)

O'Hara-May, Jane. Elizabethan Dyetary of Health. Published by Coronado Press, Lawrence, Kansas. 1977. (CI: Chapter 12 {drinks}, index and excellent bibliography.)

Perlman, Dorothy 1973, The Magic of Honey, 150 pp., Honey in Drinks [includes Mead]: pp. 107-111 Nash Publishing, Los Angeles

Perry, Charles, translator. An Anonymous Andalusian Cookbook of the 13th Century. A Complete Translation by Charles Perry of the Arabic Edition of Ambrosio Huici Miranda with the assistance of an English Translation by Elise Flemming, Stephen Bloch, Habib ibn Al-Andalusi and Janet Hinson of the Spanish Translation by Ambrosio Huici Miranda. (c)1992 by Charles Perry. Reprinted in A Collection of Medieval and Renaissance Cookery Books. Volume II by Friedman, David (Sir Cariadoc of the Bow) Published privately. (CI: really cool chapter on drinks)

Pichon, Jérome, ed. Le Ménagier de Paris, Traité De Morale Et D'économie Domestique Composé Vers 1393, Par Un Bourgeois Parisien; Contenant Des préceptes moraux, quelques faits historiques, des instructions sur l'art de diriger une maison, des reuseignemens sur la consommation du Roi, des Princes et de la ville de Paris, à la fin du quatorzième siècle, des conseils sur le jardinage et sur le choix des chevaux; un traité de cuisin= e fort étendu, et un autre non moins complet sur la chasse à l'épervier. Ensemble: L'histoire de Griséldis, Mellibée et Prudence par Albertan de Brescia (1246), traduit par frère Renault de Louens; et le chemin de Povreté et de Richesse, poëme composé, en 1342, par Jean Bruyant, notaire au Chàtelet de Paris; Publié Pour La Premiére Fois Par La Société Des Bibliophiles François. Tome Second. A Paris, De L'imprimerie de Crapelet, Rue de Vaugirard, 9. 1846.

Plat, Sir Hugh. Delights for Ladies, To adorn their perfons, Tables, Clofets and Diftillatoriess with Beavties, Banqvets, Perfumes & Waters. Published London, 1609. Reprinted in A Collection of Medieval and Renaissance Cookbooks: First Compiled by Duke Cariadoc of the Bow and The Duchess Diana Alena. Sixth Edition (1991) Volume One, published privately.

Pouncy, Carolyn Johnston, ed. The Domostroi, Rules for Russian Households in the Time of Ivan the Terrible. Cornell Univ. Press. Ithaca, New York, 1994. (CR: A new book with at least 10 recipes for mead and beer.)

Power, Eileen, and C.G. Coulton, eds. The Goodman of Paris (Le Ménagier de Paris) A Treatise on Moral and Domestic Economy by a Citizen of Paris, c. 1393. George Routledge & Sons, Ltd. London, 1928.

Proulx, Annie and Nichols, Lew. Sweet and Hard Cider: Making It, Using It & Enjoying It. A Garden Way of Publishing Book (c)1988 by Storey Communications Inc., Pownal, VT 05261. ISBN 0-88266-352-6. (CI: Excellent modern text on apple trees and making juice from your own apples. Good section on distilling and the potential legal problems of distilling.)

The Queen's Closet Opened. Incomparable Secrets in Physick, Chirurgery, Preserving, Candying, and Cookery, etc. By W.M., Cook to Queen Henrietta Maria. London, 1655.

Ransome, Hilda M. 1937, The Sacred Bee: in Ancient Times and Folklore, 308 pp., Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.

Ratti, Oscar. and Westbrook, Adele., Translators and adapters. The Medieval Health Handbook original Italian edition Tacinum Sanitatis. Lusia Cogliati Arano, editor. Published by George Braziller, Inc. New York. 1976 ISBN 0-8076-0808-4 (CI: cool pictures, Po Valley, circa 1390 documents wine, water, and grape juice)

Renfrow, Cindy. A Sip Through Time: A Collection of Old Brewing Recipes. Published Privately. 1993. (c)1994 by Cindy Renfrow. LCCCN TX-4-019-890 (CI: mostly American colonial era)

AK: This book contains over 400 recipes from Ancient Egypt/Greece/Rome, through medieval Europe and into the later centuries as far as the 1800s. There are recipes for ale, beer, mead, metheglin, cider, perry, brandy, liqueurs, distilled waters, hypocras, wines, caudles, possets, and syllabubs...to take a line from the book. There also is an appendix listing the herbs and fruits with warnings about those which might cause health problems.

Renfrow gives the original recipe and its source, with date. So, you will know whether it is within "period" and in what cookery (or other) book it appeared. Her earliest is Sumerian ale from around 1800 _B.C._.

The chapters are : Ales and Beers; Meads, Hydromels & Metheglins; Wines; Caudles, Possets & Syllabubs; Brandies, Liqueurs & Distilled Waters; Cider and Perry; Hypocras; Methods & Cures. There is an appendix as I mentioned as well as a bibliography and list of sources. It is 335 pages and costs $20.00 US. New Jersey residents have to add their 6% sales tax. Checks should be payable to Cindy and sent to her address.

Rohde, Eleanour Sinclair. A Garden of Herbs. Circa 1922. Rpt. Dover Publications, Inc. New York, 1969. (CR: Contains lots of old recipes.)

Sambrook, Pamela. Country House Brewing in England 1500-1900. Published by The Hambledon Press, London 1996.

Sass, Lorna J. To the King's Taste: Richard II's book of feasts and recipes adapted for modern cooking. (c)1975 by The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Printed by The Stinehour Press. ISBN 0-87099-133-7 (CI: recipes adapted from the Forme of Cury. one poorly redacted spiced wine recipe)

Scully, Terence. The Art of Cookery in the Middle Ages. Published by The Boydell Press, Woodbridge UK. 1995 ISBN 0-85115-611. (CI: chapter on beverages)

Simon, André L. How to Make Wines and Cordials. 1946. Rpt. Dover Publications, Inc. New York, 1972. (CR: Contains hundreds of documented old recipes.)

Spence, Pamela. Mad About Mead! : Nectar of the Gods. Published by Llewellyn Publications, October 1, 1997. ISBN: 1567186831.

Taillevent, Guillaume Tirel dit (1315?-1395). Le viandier de Guillaume Tirel dit Taillevent. Translated by Prescott, James. published as Le Viandier de Taillevent: 14th Century Cookery Second Edition. Published by Alfarhaugr Publishing Society, Eugene, OR, c1989 ISBN 0-9623719-1-2 (CI: one caulde recipe)

Tonsley, Cecil 1969, Honey for Health, 125 pp., Mead and Honey Drinks: pp. 76-88. Award Books, New York

Trager, James. Food Chronology: A food lover's compendium of events and anecdotes from prehistory to the present. Published by Henry Holt and Company: New York 1995. ISBN 0-8050-3389-0. (CI: interesting but not well documented)

Tryon, Thomas. A new Art of Brewing Beer, Ale and other Sorts of Liquors (1690).

Unger, Richard W. "The Scale of Dutch brewing, 1350-1600" Research in Economic History, 15 (1995) pp 261-292

Unger, Richard W. "Technical change in the brewing industry in Germany, the Low Countries, and England in the late middle ages" Journal of European Economic History, n. 21 (1992) pp. 281-313.

Warder, Joseph 1726, The True Amazons, or the Monarchy of Bees: 6th edition, 112 pp. Chap. XXI: pp. 108-110: How to make English Canary, no way inferior to the best of Spanish wines. John Pemberton, London

Wildman, Thomas 1778, A Treatise on the Management of Bees. 3rd ed.: 318 pp. Chap. XI: pp. 263-265: Directions for making Mead. W. Strahan and T. Cadell, London

Wilson, Constance Anne, editor. 'Liquid Nourishment' Potable Foods and Stimulating Drinks. Published by Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. 1993. Publication of Papers from the Fifth Leeds Symposium on Food History and Traditions, April, 1990. ISBN 0-7486-0424-3 (CI: information on late renissance brewing)

Wilson, Constance Anne, Food and Drink in Britain from the Stone Age to the 19th Century. Published by Academy Chicago Publishers, Chicago, IL., 1991. ISBN 0-89733-264-0

Wittich, Boris 1981, A Taste of Honey. (English translation by Sara Moncur from German): 92 pp. Drinks [Includes Mead and wine recipes]: pp. 83-92. Sherborne, Dorset, Britain.

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